The telescope was first invented in the Netherlands in 1608. Its design quickly spread across Europe until it reached Galileo. Galileo spent years refining and redeveloping the telescope until it was much more powerful than before. He was able to observe many new astronomical phenomena such as the moons of Jupiter. For a while, Galileo had the best telescopes in the world, but many people began to build their own telescopes of similar quality. The technology continued to develop throughout Europe and led to many more astronomical discoveries such as the phases of Venus.
The next major innovation was the reflecting telescope, which used curved mirrors as well as lenses to magnify the images even more than before. This technology was used all the way into the 20th century. Eventually, scientists started to use other types of telescopes to collect more detailed information about the universe. Radio, infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray, and gamma ray telescopes were all invented in the mid 19th century and are used to collect information related to other types of non-visual light. While these telescopes don’t provide visual pictures of the phenomena in our universe, they provide scientists with crucial information about the chemical compositions of stars and planets. These telescopes were used to discover Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, which was previously undetectable by visual light telescopes.